Heart disease – Symptoms and causes

Heart disease describes a variety of conditions that have an effect on your heart. Diseases below the guts sickness umbrella embody vas diseases, like arteria disease; rhythm issues (arrhythmias); and heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects), among others.

The term “heart sickness” is usually used interchangeably with the term “cardiovascular disease.” upset usually refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels which will cause a attack, pain (angina) or stroke. different heart conditions, like people who have an effect on your heart’s muscle, valves or rhythm, are thought-about kinds of cardiovascular disease.

Many kinds of cardiovascular disease are often prevented or treated with healthy way decisions.


Heart disease symptoms depend on what type of heart disease you have.

Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease)

Cardiovascular disease symptoms is also completely different for men and ladies. for example, men are a lot of probably to possess chest pain; girls are more likely to have different symptoms beside chest discomfort, like shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue.

Symptoms will include:

Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort (angina)
Shortness of breath
Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms if the blood vessels in those components of your body are narrowed
Pain within the neck, jaw, throat, higher abdomen or back
You might not be diagnosed with disorder till you have got a coronary failure, angina, stroke or heart disease. It’s necessary to look at for vas symptoms and discuss considerations along with your doctor. disorder will generally be found early with regular evaluations.

Heart disease symptoms caused by abnormal heartbeats (heart arrhythmias)

  • Fluttering in your chest
  • Racing heartbeat (tachycardia)
  • Slow heartbeat (bradycardia)
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting (syncope) or near fainting

Heart disease symptoms caused by heart defects

  • Pale gray or blue skin color (cyanosis)
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen or areas around the eyes
  • In an infant, shortness of breath during feedings, leading to poor weight gain
  • Easily getting short of breath during exercise or activity
  • Easily tiring during exercise or activity
  • Swelling in the hands, ankles or feet

Heart disease symptoms caused by weak heart muscle (dilated cardiomyopathy)

  • Breathlessness with exertion or at rest
  • Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding or fluttering
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting

Heart disease symptoms caused by heart infections

  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Swelling in your legs or abdomen
  • Changes in your heart rhythm
  • Dry or persistent cough
  • Skin rashes or unusual spots

Heart disease symptoms caused by valvular heart disease

  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Swollen feet or ankles
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting (syncope)

When to see a doctor

Seek emergency medical care if you have these heart disease symptoms:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fainting


our heart may be a pump. It’s a muscular organ concerning the scale of your hand, located slightly left of center in your chest. Your heart is split into the proper and therefore the left facet. The division prevents oxygen-rich blood from combining with oxygen-poor blood. Oxygen-poor blood returns to the guts when current through your body.

The right facet of the guts, comprising the proper atrium and ventricle, collects and pumps blood to the lungs through the respiratory organ arteries.
The lungs refresh the blood with a replacement offer of O. The lungs additionally take a breath greenhouse gas, a stuff.
Oxygen-rich blood then enters the left facet of the guts, comprising the atrium sinistrum and ventricle.
The left facet of the guts pumps blood through the arteria to provide tissues throughout the body with O and nutrients.
Heart valves
Four valves at intervals your heart keep your blood moving the proper manner by gap only 1 way and only if they have to. To perform properly, the valve should be shaped properly, should open all the manner and must shut tightly thus there’s no outflow. The four valves are:



  • During contraction (systole), your ventricles contract, forcing blood into the vessels to your lungs and body.
  • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are filled with blood coming from the upper chambers (left and right atria).

Electrical system

  • Electrical impulses begin high in the right atrium and travel through specialized pathways to the ventricles, delivering the signal for the heart to pump.
  • The conduction system keeps your heart beating in a coordinated and normal rhythm, which keeps blood circulating.

Various heart disease causes

The causes of heart disease vary by type of heart disease.

Causes of cardiovascular disease

While disorder will talk over with completely different heart or vessel issues, the term is commonly accustomed mean injury to your heart or blood vessels by arterial sclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-ROE-sis), a buildup of fatty plaques in your arteries. Plaque buildup thickens and stiffens artery walls, which might inhibit blood flow through your arteries to your organs and tissues.

Atherosclerosis is additionally the foremost common explanation for disorder. It may be caused by correctable issues, like associate unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and smoking.

Causes of heart heart condition
Common causes of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) or conditions which will result in arrhythmias include:

Heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects)
Coronary artery malady
High force per unit area
Excessive use of alcohol or alkaloid
Drug abuse
Some over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, dietary supplements and flavoring remedies
Valvular cardiopathy
In a healthy person with a standard, healthy heart, it’s unlikely for a fatal heart condition to develop while not some outside trigger, like associate reflex or the employment of black medication. That’s primarily as a result of a healthy person’s heart is free from associatey abnormal conditions that cause an heart condition, like a district of scarred tissue.

However, in an exceedingly heart that’s unhealthy or ill-shapen, the center’s electrical impulses might not properly begin or travel through the heart, creating arrhythmias additional probably to develop.

Causes of noninheritable heart defects
Congenital heart defects sometimes develop whereas a baby is within the uterus. Heart defects will develop because the heart develops, a couple of month once conception, dynamic the flow of blood within the heart. Some medical conditions, medications and genes could play a job in inflicting heart defects.

Heart defects may develop in adults. As you age, your heart’s structure will modification, inflicting a heart defect.

Causes of heart condition
The explanation for heart condition, a thickening or enlarging of the center muscle, could rely upon the type:

Dilated heart condition. The explanation for this most typical kind of heart condition typically is unknown. it’s going to be caused by reduced blood flow to the center (ischemic heart disease) ensuing from injury once a attack, infections, toxins and sure medication. it’s going to even be transmitted from a parent. it always enlarges (dilates) the ventricle.
Hypertrophic heart condition. This type, within which the center muscle becomes abnormally thick, sometimes is transmitted. It may develop over time as a result of high force per unit area or aging.
Restrictive heart condition. This least common kind of heart condition, that causes the center muscle to become rigid and fewer elastic, will occur for no celebrated reason. Or it’s going to be caused by diseases, like animal tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments.
Causes of heart infection
A heart infection, like carditis, is caused once associate pain in the neck, like a bacteria, virus or chemical, reaches your muscular tissue. the foremost common causes of heart infection include:

Causes of controller cardiopathy
There are several causes of diseases of your heart valves. you will turn with controller malady, or the valves is also broken by conditions such as:

Rheumatic fever
Infections (infectious endocarditis)
Connective tissue disorders

Risk factors

Risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease include:

Age. Aging will increase your risk of broken and narrowed arteries and weakened or thickened muscular tissue.
Sex. Men are usually at bigger risk of cardiovascular disease. However, women’s risk will increase when climacteric.
Family history. A case history of cardiovascular disease will increase your risk of arterial blood vessel disease, particularly if a parent developed it at associate early age (before age fifty five for a blood brother, like your brother or father, and sixty five for a sis, like your mother or sister).
Smoking. plant toxin constricts your blood vessels, and monoxide will harm their inner lining, creating them additional vulnerable to arterial sclerosis. Heart attacks are additional common in smokers than in nonsmokers.
Certain therapy medicine and therapy for cancer. Some therapy medicine and radiation therapies could increase the danger of upset.
Poor diet. A diet that’s high in fat, salt, sugar and cholesterin will contribute to the event of cardiovascular disease.
High pressure. Uncontrolled high pressure may end up in hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels through that blood flows.
High blood cholesterin levels. High levels of cholesterin in your blood will increase the danger of formation of plaques and arterial sclerosis.
Diabetes. polygenic disease will increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. each conditions share similar risk factors, like fleshiness and high pressure.
Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different risk factors.
Physical inactivity. Lack of exercise is also related to several sorts of cardiovascular disease and a few of its different risk factors, as well.
Stress. undiminished stress could harm your arteries and worsen different risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Poor hygiene. Not often laundry your hands and not establishing different habits that may facilitate forestall infective agent or microorganism infections can place you in danger of heart infections, particularly if you have already got associate underlying cardiovascular disease. Poor dental health additionally could contribute to cardiovascular disease.


Complications of heart disease include:

Heart failure. one in every of the foremost common complications of heart condition, heart condition happens once your heart can’t pump enough blood to satisfy your body’s desires. heart condition may end up from several styles of heart disease, together with heart defects, disorder, control heart condition, heart infections or cardiopathy.
Heart attack. A blood interference the blood flow through a vas that feeds the guts causes a coronary failure, probably damaging or destroying a locality of the guts muscle. induration of the arteries will cause a coronary failure.
Stroke. the danger factors that cause disorder can also lead to an stroke, that happens once the arteries to your brain are narrowed or blocked so insufficient blood reaches your brain. A stroke may be a medical emergency — brain tissue begins to die inside a number of minutes of a stroke.
Aneurysm. a significant complication which will occur anyplace in your body, AN cardiovascular disease may be a bulge within the wall of your artery. If AN cardiovascular disease bursts, you’ll face grave internal harm.
Peripheral artery unwellness. induration of the arteries can also cause peripheral artery disease. once you develop peripheral artery unwellness, your extremities — sometimes your legs — don’t receive enough blood flow. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain once walking (claudication).
Sudden asystole. unforeseen asystole is that the sudden, surprising loss of heart perform, respiratory and consciousness, typically caused by AN heart disease. unforeseen asystole may be a medical emergency. If not treated at once, it’s fatal, leading to unforeseen internal organ death.


  • Quit smoking
  • Control other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week
  • Eat a diet that’s low in salt and saturated fat
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce and manage stress
  • Practice good hygiene